The Fate of the Forest: Developers, Destroyers, and Defenders of the Amazon Por Susanna B. Hecht; Alexander CockburnThe Amazon rain forest covers more than five million square kilometers, amid the territories of nine different nations. It represents over half of the planetOCOs remaining rain forest. Is it truly in peril? What steps are necessary to save it? To understand the future of Amazonia, one must know how its history was forged: in the eras of large pre-Columbian populations, in the gold rush of conquistadors, in centuries of slavery, in the schemes of BrazilOCOs military dictators in the 1960s and 1970s, and in new globalized economies where Brazilian soy and beef now dominate, while the market in carbon credits raises the value of standing forest. Susanna Hecht and Alexander Cockburn show in compelling detail the panorama of destruction as it unfolded, and also reveal the extraordinary turnaround that is now taking place, thanks to both the social movements, and the emergence of new environmental markets. Exploring the role of human hands in destroyingOCoand savingOCothis vast forested region, "The Fate of the Forest "pivots on the murder of Chico Mendes, the legendary labor and environmental organizer assassinated after successful confrontations with big ranchers. A multifaceted portrait of Eden under siege, complete with a new preface and afterword by the authors, this book demonstrates that those who would hold a mirror up to nature must first learn the lessons offered by some of their own people."
The Economics of Deforestation Por Sven WunderTropical forests are disappearing at an unaltered pace, giving way to alternative land uses. This book gives an economic perspective on deforestation. Following a survey of different deforestation definitions, theories and empirical evidence, a case-study of Ecuador provides a versatile historical picture of factors affecting forest loss throughout different periods, regions and ecosystems. It is shown that policy and market failures alone cannot explain rapid deforestation; decision-makers follow a composite economic rationale in their continuous clearing of forests which can only be counteracted by concerted action.
Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon Por Sergio MargulisCauses of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon is part of the World Bank Working Paper series. These papers are published to communicate the results of the Bank's ongoing research and to stimulate public discussion. The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is partly motivated by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. The perception also underlies the diagnostic, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government and non-governmental organizations working in the region, including the World Bank. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon studies the role of cattle ranching -- its dynamic and profitability -- in the expansion of deforestation. It provides a social evaluation of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia by, on one hand, identifying the main agents involved in the process, the economic motives behind their activities and their possible economic returns and, on the other hand, by undertaking a monetary evaluation of the economic (social) costs of deforestation while making some comparisons with sustainable forest management.
Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation Por Arild Angelsen; David KaimowitzThis book has been developed from a workshop on Technological change in agriculture and tropical deforestation organized by the Center for International Forestry Research and held in Costa Rica in March, 1999. It explores how intensification of agriculture affects tropical deforestation using case studies from different geographical regions, using different agricultural products and technologies and in differing demographic situations and market conditions. Guidance is also given on future agricultural research and extension efforts.
Real Time Deforestation Detection Using Ann and Satellite Images Por Thiago Kehl; Viviane Todt; Maurício Veronez; Silvio CazellaThe foremost aim of the present study was the development of a tool to detect daily deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, using satellite images from the MODIS/TERRA sensor and Artificial Neural Networks. The developed tool provides parameterization of the configuration for the neural network training to enable us to select the best neural architecture to address the problem. The tool makes use of confusion matrices to determine the degree of success of the network. A spectrum-temporal analysis of the study area was done on 57 images from May 20 to July 15, 2003 using the trained neural network. The analysis enabled verification of quality of the implemented neural network classification and also aided in understanding the dynamics of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest, thereby highlighting the vast potential of neural networks for image classification. However, the complex task of detection of predatory actions at the beginning, i.e., generation of consistent alarms, instead of false alarms has not been solved yet. Thus, the present article provides a theoretical basis and elaboration of practical use of neural networks and satellite images to combat illegal deforestation.
Rainforest Cowboys Por Jeffrey HoelleWinner, Brazil Section Book Award, Latin American Studies Association, 2016 The opening of the Amazon to colonization in the 1970s brought cattle, land conflict, and widespread deforestation. In the remote state of Acre, Brazil, rubber tappers fought against migrant ranchers to preserve the forest they relied on, and in the process, these "forest guardians" showed the world that it was possible to unite forest livelihoods and environmental preservation. Nowadays, many rubber tappers and their children are turning away from the forest-based lifestyle they once sought to protect and are becoming cattle-raisers or even caubois (cowboys). Rainforest Cowboys is the first book to examine the social and cultural forces driving the expansion of Amazonian cattle raising in all of their complexity. Drawing on eighteen months of fieldwork, Jeffrey Hoelle shows how cattle raising is about much more than beef production or deforestation in Acre, even among "carnivorous" environmentalists, vilified ranchers, and urbanites with no land or cattle. He contextualizes the rise of ranching in relation to political economic structures and broader meanings to understand the spread of "cattle culture." This cattle-centered vision of rural life builds on local experiences and influences from across the Americas and even resembles East African cultural practices. Written in a broadly accessible and interdisciplinary style, Rainforest Cowboys is essential reading for a global audience interested in understanding the economic and cultural features of cattle raising, deforestation, and the continuing tensions between conservation and development in the Amazon.